• 1800-1000 B.C.

    Patriarchs / Bronze Age

    Abraham, Moses & Exodus from Egypt, Joshua & Conquest of Land, period of judges.

  • 1000-586 B.C.

    First Temple Period / Israelite Monarchy / Iron Age

    David & Solomon (1000-930)
    Split into Kingdom of Israel and Kingdom of Judah (930)
    Ahab and Elijah (mid 9th Century)
    Assyrians conquer Kingdom of Israel (722)
    Hezakiah (late 8th Century)
    Babylonians conquer Kingdom of Judah, Jerusalem, and Temple (586)

  • 515 B.C.-70 A.D.

    Second Temple Period

    Ezra and Nehemiah in Jerusalem during “Persian Period” (mid 5th century)
    Alexander the Great, beginning of “Hellenistic Period” (330s)
    Maccabean Revolt and Hannukah (160s)
    Life of Jesus (birth = 6-4 B.C.; death = 27-33 A.D.)
    First Jewish Revolt and destruction of Jerusalem and Temple (66-70 A.D.)

  • 63 B.C.-326 A.D.

    Roman Period

    Pompey establishes Roman control of Judea (63 B.C.)
    Bar Kokhba Revolt (132-135 A.D.)

  • 326-638

    Byzantine Period

    Christianity became a recognized religion in the Roman Empire (313 A.D.)
    Constantine’s mother, Helena, builds churches (e.g., Church of the Nativity and Church of the Holy Sepulchre (mid 4th Century)
    Christian pilgrimage to the Holy Land increases

  • 638-1099

    Early Arab Period

    Within a decade of Muhammad’s death, Arab armies conquer Jerusalem dome of the Rock (691) and Al-Aqsa Mosque (705) built

  • 1099-1291

    Crusader Period

    Knights of the First Crusade take Jerusalem (1099)
    Saladin conquers Jerusalem and expels Christians from Jerusalem (1187)

  • 1517-1917

    Ottoman Period

    Suleiman I (the Magnigicent) constructs current walls of Old City of Jerusalem (1535-1538)

  • 1917-1948

    British Mandate

    British make promises of land and statehood to both Jews and Arabs

  • 1948-present

    State of Israel

    War for Independence and Al-Nakba (1948)
    Six Day War (1967)